Sunflower seeds (lat. Helianthus) is a genus of plants of the family Asteraceae. The most well known species: sunflower oil, and sunflower seed tubers. An important feature of the carnival of cultures is the accumulation of their seeds or fruits of a large amount of fatty oil. Among oilseeds crops are allocated to these oil crops, which are grown for oil.
The main carnival culture in Ukraine - the Sunflower. It occupies the largest area of cultivation in relation to other crops of some kind, and gives the greatest amount of oil per unit area.
The Latin scientific name of the genus (lat. helianthus - solar flower), comes from the Greek words helius (the sun) and anthemon (flower). Ukrainian name arose from the fact that its inflorescence always turn towards the sun, which expressed more than other plants (so-called heliotropism - turn uncovered and exposed to the sun inflorescences follow its movement across the sky, as a special case of phototropism).
In the sectional work derived varieties and hybrids of sunflower, containing a very high amount of oil. Played a large role in the updating of varieties. Because the cultivation of sunflower low reproductions reduces oil yield up to 3-4 %.
Sunflower oil has a good taste and is widely used for consumption in its natural form. Also sunflower oil is used in various industries.
During the processing of sunflower achenes get cake and meal. Also used the husks of seeds, threshed baskets and green mass is a valuable feed for livestock.
It should be noted that the sunflower is a valuable honey crop. Sunflower as a wild plant found only in America. Homeland cultural sunflower in its present form are the current countries that were part of the former Soviet Union.
To ensure high productivity of sunflower and subsequent crops, it is necessary to clearly approach the system of crop rotation and use of varieties and hybrids resistant to Broomrape.
Basically, sunflower little demanding predecessors. Among the legumes not a valid precursor for sunflower is beans, which, like the sunflower is affected in common with them disease - Sclerotinia. He is also not a bad precursor for grain crops.
The main agronomic requirements when using it as a predecessor - quality cleaning with minimal losses and deep plowing. In the cultivation of sunflower essential event is fertilizing.
Sunflower - culture of early planting. But the best results were obtained when sowing after two to three weeks after the beginning of spring field works. This gives you the opportunity to clear the area of weeds. For sowing use zoned high-yielding varieties and hybrids of domestic and foreign selection. After sowing, the field is mandatory rolled down.
During the growing season, as weeds conducting inter-row processing. When the sunflower plants 60-70 cm height - mechanical stop processing rows.
Harvesting sunflower start at the onset of the economic maturity, more precisely, in the presence of yellow-brown, brown and dry baskets (not less than 90 %). If not very uniform ripening of plants are desiccation of crops.
During storage of seeds of high oil-yielding varieties or hybrids humidity should not exceed 7 % and the layer stack 1 m When stored in bags allowable moisture content of seeds 8-10 %. Humidity when storing seeds for technical purposes should not exceed 10-12 %.